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Insights on the value chain and management practices of stone pine forests in Lebanon.

Sattout E1, Faour G2
1Institute of Urbanism, Lebanese Academy of Fine Arts, University of Balamand, Sin El Fil 55-251 – Beirut.
2 National Council for Scientific Research, P.O.Box: 11-8281, Riad El Solh 1107 2260, Beirut-Lebanon.
Upcoming issue of Cahiers Options Méditerranéennes, 2016.

Drawing the value chain of stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) forests (SPFs) in Lebanon requires defining habitat characteristics and vegetation composition, mapping stakeholders and forests governance structure, understanding local and international markets as well as collecting time series data on forests production and revenue. Remote sensing techniques and vegetation surveys were used to draw the ecological profile of SPFs. Information gathering on the extracted goods and annual cost and revenues of pine nuts resulted in a 20-years time series data (1996-2016). Data mining revealed limitations for the designed research study and prevailing narratives on the total annual production of pine nuts. Rapid appraisals with government representatives, land tenants and managers defined the existing administrative and management framework of these forests. The community of labors is regulated by the Order of Labors and Agriculture of SPFs. The workforce is mainly composed of foreigners with 400 forestland’s tenants. The average annual production generated from 6-years life cycle for pruning reaches up 1100 tonnes of pine nuts. The average local market price of pine nuts remaining higher than the imported one, increased from USD 20 to 90 between 2000-2016. Turkey and Italy are the major importers of Lebanese pine nuts. The net revenue was estimated at US$37.8 million in 2012 and US$ 5.38 million in 1996. Since 2014, drop in the annual production was estimated at 500 tonnes/year. The decrease in production is attributed to the Western Conifer Seed (WCS) bug (Leptoglossus occidentalis). The insect affected not only the annual production of nuts but also the land tenancy of SPFs.

Keywords. Nut – Value Chain – Net revenue – Lebanon.

We thank Mr. Abboud Freiha from the Lebanese Ministry of Agriculture and Mr. Elias Neaimeh from the Order of Labors and Agriculture of Stone Pine Forests for their support on the time series data. We acknowledge the support provided by Dr. Micheline Wehbe from the Lebanese University on data collection


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