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Externalities of environmental national planning – the case of biodiversity conservation in the Kingdom of Bahrain.

Sattout E., Al Mealla R.  et al.
April 4, 2016 | Stay tuned for the full Upcoming article
Keywords: NBSAPs, CSR, Synergies, Mainstreaming, Aichi targets.

After almost a decade of the development of the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) of the Kingdom of Bahrain, the updated version of this policy framework was developed defying prevailing challenges encountered in developing countries, especially in West Asia. Challenges include gaps in national database, overwhelming agendas of Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) and the requirements at national level, full engagement of national stakeholders and of civil societies in NBSAP’s implementation and financial mobilization. The updating process was strongly bound with the requirement of the IEG on Biological Diversity (CBD), including COP decisions on Strategic Plan 2010-2020 and Aichi Targets, Biodiversity Liaison Group and synergies among the Biodiversity Cluster of MEAs and mainstreaming biodiversity conservation in all sectors. The methodology of work addressed stakeholders’ participation and mapping, stocktaking on the state of biodiversity and consultation meetings. The NBSAP’s national targets were mapped with all existing national policies directly to indirectly related to biodiversity and sustainable development. An analysis of the existing administrative and legislative frameworks was made to assess the Kingdom preparedness on biodiversity conservation.
The updating process reveals the need to engage strongly national stakeholders in building up national database, to construct insights on future national research policies and to seriously engage citizens in his different life aspects to be an agent of change within his small community. Stitching threads to have strong bonds between decision-makers and scholars and constructing new ways of thinking for biodiversity finance are two main pillars for effective NBSAP’s implementation. On one hand, the stocktaking exercise and stakeholders mapping revealed a fertile ground for enforcing synergies between MEAs biodiversity cluster and others and for the establishment of a national environmental trust. Consultation meetings investigated the readiness of the private sector to mobilize funds for NBSAP implementation through the Corporate Social Responsibility. Stakeholders’ participation showed the existing potential in increasing the awareness on biodiversity value through the design of a coherent and consolidated action plan for CSOs and NGOs.
The paper analyses the externalities of environmental planning, their policy tools and collaterals mechanisms on biodiversity conservation in the Kingdom in Bahrain (success and shortfalls of its implementation).

We acknowledge the Global Environmental Facility for the financial support and Ms. Diane Klaimi, UNEP-ROWA for her technical support. We are thankful to Ms. Nouf Al Wasmi, CBD National Focal Point at the Supreme Council for Environment, Eman Hussain and Tamera Al Husseini for the efforts invested in the project’s coordination and for their participation in all project’s activities. We are grateful for all national stakeholders and individuals who were engaged in the NBSAP update process.

Full NBSAP can be accessed online at:


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